What is Aplastic Anemia and What is the treatment
The reports from institutions of bone marrow transplant in India present facts which showcase that aplastic anaemia is a very rare medical condition which affects less than thousand people per year in the country. The condition of aplastic anaemia compels the body towards lower rates of new blood cell creation which can a post serious threats to the affected person. The proposed treatments for aplastic anaemia vary in the range of medication, blood transfusions and bone marrow transplant.
The development of aplastic anaemia can be varying in progression and persistence, age does not bar the capacity of acquiring aplastic anaemia. The possible manifestations can be observed through fatigue, shortness of breath with exertion, heart palpitations, irregularity in heart rate, skin turns pale, persistent infections, nosebleeds, bleeding gums, uncontrolled bleeding, easy bruising, skin rashes, and headache.
There are various reasons which affect the capacity of the bone marrow to produce new stem cells and the results can be permanent in nature as well. It has been noticed that the treatments for cancer such as radiation and chemotherapy can temporarily affect the bone marrow. An extended contact with toxic chemicals such as benzene can likewise influence the bone marrow leading to aplastic anaemia in some cases. Hepatitis, Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and HIV have been observed as contributing factors to aplastic anaemia. There is a medical condition in which red blood cells break down prior to the ending stage, technically known as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, it can be a prior or post development of aplastic anaemia.
As per the cause of aplastic anaemia, it can be distinguished as acquired aplastic anaemia and inherited plastic anaemia. The former case is triggered by viral infections, exposure to certain chemicals, intake or contact with specific drugs, and radiation therapy and chemotherapy, it is more commonly found in adults due to disruption in the immune system. Whereas inherited aplastic anaemia is a common condition in the age group of children and young adults and as the name suggests it is an acquired from gene defects or inherited disorders, it increases the risk of acquiring of cancers such as leukaemia.
The varsity of treatments for aplastic anaemia is customised as per the severity of cases. The best bone marrow transplant hospitals India advice medications and blood transfusions if the conditions are not severe and bone marrow transplant for grave cases. For diagnosis, the doctor performs blood tests which evaluate the levels of red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet. A low range of these cells denotes risk of aplastic anaemia. Like the usual biopsy, bone marrow biopsy is carried out to confirm the condition. An absence of normal levels of blood cells from the taken stem cells is pointing factors for aplastic anaemia.
If the cause of aplastic anaemia is a case autoimmune disorder, immunosuppressants are prescribed as solutions. These drugs work to modify the response of the immune system.
For people who can't undergo a bone marrow transplant or for those whose aplastic anaemia may be due to an autoimmune disorder, treatment may involve drugs that alter or suppress the immune system (immunosuppressants). Cyclosporine and anti-thymocyte globulin are some immunosuppressants which are recommended as an assortment to effectively alter the immune system. Corticosteroids can be asked to intake along with other immunosuppressants to increase the efficiency of treatment. Bone marrow stimulants are prescribed to increase the production of new blood cells and antivirals/ antibiotics are the alternative response if the cause of aplastic anaemia is viral infections. Blood transfusions are prescribed to compensate for the lack of new blood cells. The bone marrow transplant is the most effective treatment if the right donor is found.