What are different ways of bone marrow transplant
Bone marrow is a soft and gelatinous tissue that is found in the center of most of the bones. Hip and thigh bones are the most common ones where you can find it. It contains immature cells which are known as stem cells. These cells give rise to red and white blood cells along with the platelets. It weighs around 4 percent of the total body mass and produces an astonishing 500 billion blood cells per day. In order to lead a normal life, there is need of healthy bone marrow. But when we are hit with diseases, then it no longer function effectively and is in need of a transplant. BLK is the best bone marrow transplant hospitals in India.
There are two types of marrows present in the body –
· Red – It produces all red blood cells and platelets in the body. Around 60-70 percent of the lymphocytes are also formed by this part. Along with liver and spleen, it gets rid of old blood cells.
· Yellow – It mainly stores fats. The correct environment of the body is maintained by it.
Bone marrow transplant in India is needed when the bone marrow becomes non functional. In conditions such as leukemia, aplastic anemia and sickle cell anemia, it gets destroyed. Chemotherapy is given to get rid of this problem and transplant will help in regenerating a new immune system. After the cancer treatment method is given, it can replace bone marrow and restore its normal function. This method is also helpful in cases of genetic disease process. Hurler’s syndrome and adrenoleukodystrophy damages bone marrow.
Before the transplant method, it is important to know the tissue type. A tissue type is defined as the type of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) on the surface of most of the cells of the body. Compatibility is very necessary for bone marrow transplant. Doctors assess how many proteins match on the surface of the donor’s and recipient’s blood cells. A blood relative is more likely to have a matching tissue type but if the suitable candidate is not found from family members, then someone from the donor register is found. Several tests are done before this process. These tests include tissue typing and a variety of blood tests, chest X-ray, pulmonary function tests, CT or CAT scans etc.
Bone marrow transplant doctors in India use the following different types of methods –
· Autologous transplant – the word auto means own. In this transplant, stem cells from the own body are used to from the peripheral or cord blood.
· Allogeneic transplant – The word allo means other. In allogeneic transplant hospitals in India, stem cells from the donor are used. Blood relatives such as parents, brother or sister are first preferred.
· Haploidentical – instead of a fully HLA matched donor, a half HLA matched parent or donor is preferred. The closer the match, greater will be the chance of the success.
· Matched unrelated donor – there is complete HLA match to the patient but is not related in any way.